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首届世界易经高峰论坛尼尔森专题发言文稿
作者:admin 文章来源:未知   更新时间:2015-06-25

 
 

The Yijing, Gender, and the Ethics of Nature
易经、阴阳和自然伦理

Eric S. Nelson
埃里克·尼尔森(美国) 麻省理工大学哲学博士、教授 
翻译:郭红民
I. Gender, Nature, and “Chinese Thought”
阴阳、自然和中国人的思维
    This essay traces the shifting roles of gender and changing character of nature in the Yijing (《易經》)
    本论文引述了:易经中阴阳的转换和道法自然。
    I consider how gender and nature have been conceived in relation to the Yijing and its potential and limits for addressing questions of gender, the environment, as well as issues of the interconnection of gender and ecology articulated in ecofeminism.
    我认为易经中蕴含着阴阳和自然的关系法则,它可以用来处理日益变化的环境和生态问题及社会中日益变化的女权主义问题。
    Chinese philosophical and cultural traditions have become part of contemporary interpretive conflicts over the meaning of gender and the relative social status of women and men.
    就当代社会中日益变化的社会结构中的男女状况而言,中国人的哲学和文化传统已成为可用来诠释其矛盾的有效成分。
    On the one hand, Chinese cultural and intellectual traditions have been interpreted as having a greater appreciation of the significance of gender and the feminine than standard Western forms of thought.
    另一方面,相对于西方人标准思维方式,中国文化和传统智慧对阴阳和女性的解释具有更大的参考借鉴意义。
    The gendered logic of classical Chinese thought with its emphasis on a dynamic relational balance and transformative reversibility between the categories of the masculine and the feminine is distinguished from rationalizing Western tendencies that either essentialize social-cultural gender roles as an unchanging natural fate determined by “natural” biological sex or conceal gender under the guise of masculine-oriented claims to a non-gendered universality and neutrality.
     强调动态关系平衡及可逆性转化的阴阳性逻辑和传统中国思维,在男女种类中,不同于西方合理化的趋势,这趋势或者扼要表达了社会文化阴阳角色作为由自然生物性别决定的不变的自然命运,或揭示了从在男性向隐性要求下的阴阳到非阴阳性的普遍性和中立性。
    Chinese sources such as the Daodejing (《道德經》) attributed to Laozi (老子), the Yijing with its earlier origins in the Shang (商) and Zhou (周) dynasties, and yinyang (陰陽) thinking have become part of the contemporary reassessment of gender and feminist arguments about the gendered character of the underlying logic of modern societies.
    中国文化的起源,如《道德經》,归因于老子,易经的起源在商、周朝。用阴阳来思考的方式已成为当代评判性别和女权主义者对性别特征的争论,而这种争论是基于现代社会逻辑展开的。
    The ecofeminist Jytte Nhanenge, for instance, utilized these three Chinese models of gendered thinking in formulating an analysis that links the exploitation of women with the masculine domination of nature that has reached a flashpoint in the contemporary environmental crises of a now globalized Western modernity (Nhanenge, 2011, pp. 71-9).
    生态女权主义者,例如Jytte Nhanenge,列举了阴阳思考的三个中国的例子,确切地阐述他的研究,把对女人的剥削和男人对自然的统治联系起来,延伸到了当代全球化西方现代性环境危机下的政治动乱区。
    On the other hand, as feminist critics of Confucianism have demonstrated, essentializing gender has not only been a Western practice. Despite a growing number of ecofeminist and ecological appropriations of Chinese models of gender and nature, the gendered logic of classical Chinese thought has been criticized as a potentially problematic basis for rethinking gender and the roles of women insofar as it has been complicit with, or motivated, the exploitation of women and the domination of nature in traditional East Asian societies.
    另一方面,作为女权主义批评家对儒家思想的评论已被论证。并简明扼要表达了阴阳已不仅成为西方人的做法。尽管有大量的不断上升的生态女权主义者的例子,生态的挪用中国阴阳自然的例子,古代中国人的性别性思维逻辑作为潜在的问题基础遭到批判,在此范围中,这基础用来重新思考阴阳和女性角色。由于它是有目的的,在传统东亚社会中,与剥削女人,自然主宰串通一气。
    The greater awareness of gender and the feminine in classical Chinese thought does not necessarily entail actual gender equality and fairness.
    伟大的阴阳意识和传统中国思维中的女性不一定非需要真正的平等和公平。
    Customary Chinese models of understanding gender have been questioned to the extent that dominant Chinese traditions appear to hierarchically privilege the male (nan 男) over the female (nu 女), yang 陽over yin 陰, and active masculine heaven (tian 天) over passive feminine earth (di 地).
    在某种程度上,就对阴阳的理解而言,通常的中国的例子遭到质疑:支配性的中国人的传统显示出等级特权,男性在女性之上,阳在阴之上,主动的男性天在被动的女性地之上。
    Masculine and feminine phases are not dualistically separated into opposites, as the expressions tiandi, yinyang, or nannu indicate; yet they are not seen as equal in the normative hierarchical accounts of Confucianism and in the prioritizing of the feminine and maternal in the Daodejing.
    男女地位并不是二元论地被分成相反,作为表达天地、阴阳或男女的象征,然而在儒家学说中标准的等级描述中被认为是平等的,在道德经中的母系中的先后排列中女性亦如此。
    According to critics, the gendered and familial logic of masculine and feminine oriented expressions serves to reproduce a patriarchal and patrilineal socio-cultural order that encourages the role-defined recognition and subordination of women and the elements of nature identified as feminine.
    根据批评家的说法,阴阳性的及男女向性的家庭的逻辑表达用于再现父权和父系的社会文化秩序,用以鼓励定义角色的识别和女人的附属关系和识别女人的自然要素。
    One way of responding to these two apparently incompatible understandings of gender in Chinese culture, which emphasize either interactive mutuality or stratified hierarchy, is to offer a less essentialist and more differentiated account of the variety of roles gender can play within Chinese and other Confucian cultures.
    用来回答这两个明显对阴阳矛盾的理解办法,在中国文化中,强调了或相互影响或分层等级,提供了较少的本质主义论和更多的区别对待的对各种阴阳角色的描述,在中国和其他儒家文化中起作用。
    There is no one meaning of gender in Chinese culture just as there is no one essence to what it means to be Chinese.
    阴阳在中国文化中是没有意义的,就像成为中国人是什么意思一样没有本质的含义。
    A strategy that has been developed by a number of authors, which is also adopted in this essay, is to show how mutuality and reversibility continue to resonate in the context of the stratified and hierarchical interpretations that come to dominate through the Confucian tradition.
    许多作家发明了一个策略,也可应用于本论文,即为了显示相互关系和可逆性是如何继续在上下文中产生共鸣的,分层和等级解释通过儒家传统变成主宰。
    Accordingly, the initial hexagrams of the “creative” (qian 乾) and “generative” (kun 坤), or heaven and earth, that inaugurate the Yijing retain traces and indications of their basic mutuality and reversibility, as modalities of one autopoietic and generative dance-like reality, despite their increasingly hierarchical stratification into opposites through Confucianizing male-oriented interpretations such as the “Great Commentary” (Yi Dazhuan 《易大傳》).
    因此,最初创造性的乾卦和生成性的坤卦,或天地开创了易经,保留了踪迹,标识了他们的基本相互关系和可逆性,作为一个自创生的形式,像跳舞一样生成了现实,尽管他们越来越多等级分层形成相反,透过儒家化男权的解释,例如《易大傳》上所说的。
    Unlike the earlier strata of the Yijing, this commentary identified heaven with height and superiority and the earth with what is naturally lowly and base: “tian (heaven) is high and di (earth) is low (天尊地卑,乾坤定矣)” is construed as a natural phenomenon that entails a social hierarchy between women and men .
    不像早期易经上描绘的社会阶层那样,《易大傳》把天与重量和优等区别开来,把地与天然低下与基础区别开来:“天尊地卑,乾坤定矣”用于解释了自然现象使男女之间的社会等级成为必要。
    While Confucianizing interpretations transformed the Yijing from a work of divination into one that inspires ethical reflection and natural philosophical inquiry, they masculinized the text by transforming the generative into the receptive.
    当儒家的解释把易经从占卜转变为启迪道德的思考和自然哲学的质询,他们通过把生成转化为接受使实践行为雄性化。
    Qian (the creative) and kun (“the receptive”) and the correlational logic of the Yijing are associated with a hierarchical understanding of the paired appearances (liangyi 兩儀) of yinyang. Yinyang is an expression that means the shady and sunny sides of the mountain in its earliest uses and which was introduced and solidified in Confucianizing commentaries.
    乾(创造性)和坤(接受性)和相关的易经逻辑与对阴阳两仪的等级理解有关。阴阳在早期的使用中表达的意思是山的阴面和阳面,并被引入儒家学说的评说且变得具体。
    There is little evidence of yinyang thought in the earlier strata of the Yijing (Redmond et al., 2014, p. 77).
    在早期的易经社会阶层中,阴阳的思维几乎没有什么证据。
    It was only in these subsequent interpretations that qian was identified with yang, masculine power, nobility, height, and ease and kun associated with yin, feminine passivity, ignobility, lowliness, and labor (Wang, 2003, p. 28; Rosenlee, 2006, p. 56).A sense of the infinite primordial generative nature of kun was lost. Later figures such as the early Han dynasty Confucian scholar Dong Zhongshu 董仲舒—who played a key role in the Confucian hermeneutic tradition—solidified the identification of yinyang with femaleness and maleness and the five elements (wu xing 五行).
    仅仅在后来的解释中乾才被以阳、男性权利、尊贵、高度、及东面确认。坤与阴、女性的被动性、无能、卑微低下、劳工相关。原始的无限生成的自然感坤被丢失。后来的数字表明,例如早期汉朝儒家学者董仲舒,他在儒家解释学传统中扮演着重要的角色。用女性特征和男性及五行识别阴阳。
    Though Dong recognized mutual resonance and the role of the feminine in constituting the masculine and the masculine in constituting the feminine, he systematized a moralistic interpretation with an entrenched gendered hierarchy.
    尽管董仲舒承认了彼此的共鸣和女性在构成男性和男性在构成女性中的角色。他使道学的解释随牢固的性别等级制度系统化。
    The Yijing as a changing text and a matrix of practices has multiple meanings inside and outside its East Asian milieu.
    易经讲述了变化和惯例基质,在东亚一带有多种内涵。
    Recent historical research and contextualization of its earlier strata reveal a different picture than a static hierarchal order of nature and society; transformation, reversal, movement, generation, fecundity, and fertile interchange are constitutive of the Yijing’s formative process—or “dialectical logic” in a fluid, open, and non-Hegelian sense—in which the polarities of positions are continuously changing as in dance.
    近来的历史性研究和早期社会阶层的语境化揭示了比自然、社会等级秩序更不同的画面。转换、反复、运动,繁殖、多产及富有想象力的互换构成了易经的形成过程,或者说在易变、公开、黑格尔上的辩证逻辑,其中地位的分歧在共舞中不断变化。
    The unceasing movement of generativity (shengsheng buxi 生生不息) and reversal, opposition, and return (fan 反) indicates a different understanding of balance and harmony than the reproduction of a static hierarchical binary opposition in feminist appropriations of yinyang thinking.
    就不变的等级二元对立而言,在应用阴阳思考女性时,生生不息、反反复复,对抗与相反象征了对平衡和和谐的不同理解。
    Robin Wang has noted how yinyang continues to serve a double function in the Chinese tradition: “on the one hand, yinyang seems to be an intriguing and valuable conceptual resource in ancient Chinese thought for a balanced account of gender equality; on the other hand, no one can deny the fact that the inhumane treatment of women throughout Chinese history has often been rationalized in the name of yinyang” (Wang, 2012, p. xi).
    王罗宾指出阴阳是如何在中国传统中继续起到双倍作用时说:一方面,就古代中国人对性别平等的平衡解释而言,阴阳似乎是有趣的、有价值的概念性资源,另一方面,没有人能否认的事实就是非人道的对待女性已遍及中国历史,假借阴阳的名义,已被合理化。
    Whether this feminine/masculine dialectical play—a dialectic without an encompassing overcoming and synthesis of its elements—in Chinese thought and the significance of the feminine in the Yijing have a critical, ecofeminist, and socio-culturally transformative character are separate questions.
    无论这个男女,辩证的游戏如何,这辩证法不包含相生相克,就中国人的思维和女性在阴阳中的重要性而言,都有一个关键的、自然女权主义者,社会文化的角色转换是另一个问题。
    Since the practice of the Yijing is to promote divinatory understanding and/or self-reflection on one’s own present situation, it can be interpreted in relation to ecofeminist questions that stress the links between gender and nature in order to reflect on and respond to our current ecological plight.
    由于易经的实践就是去提升对占卜的理解,并或站在自身目前的角度的自我反省。这可以解释为与女权主义问题相关,为了反省和回答我们流行的生态学的困境,它强调了性别和自然之间的联系。
    The Yijing does not offer one exemplary model or metaphysics of the cosmos.
    易经没能提供一个典型例子或宇宙形而上学的例子。
    There are multiple—at least sixty-four—changing models in the Yijing through which to reflectively engage one’s own situation, including one self, society, and natural world. Along with the passive and responsive modalities (ying 應) that it shares with the Daodejing, the Yijing traces appropriate moments (shi 時) in their incipient movement (ji 幾) for responsive activity and intervention in the world. In contrast to the Yijing, the Daodejing arguably indicates one model of thinking about the feminine character of nature.
    在易经中有多种变化的例子,至少64个,透过这些例子可以深入考虑联系自己的境况,包括自身、社会和自然世界。随着被动的应(在道德经中可见)易经在他们运动的开始幾中描绘了逢时。这运动即讲世界上共鸣的活动和干预。相对易经而言,道德经论证的指出一个对自然女性特征思考的例子。
    It emphasizes the maternal fecundity and nurturing dimension of nature as well as a comportment of responsiveness, deferential passivity, and deferment.
    它强调了母系的多产和自然界养育范围之大,同时也强调了行为的响应性、恭敬的被动性和暂缓性。
    It has been argued that this strategy suggests an important way to respond to the activism and aggressiveness of technological modernity and its masculine oriented domination of nature.
    有争论说,这种战略提出了建议,回答激进主义和现代技术倾略性及男权的自然统治这是个重要的方法。
    However, large scale effortful interventions aimed at maintaining or reestablishing equality and fairness between humans and humans and the balance and harmony between the human and natural worlds are called for; such as are needed in response to gendered inequalities, environmental injustices, and the domination of nature.
    然而,大规模的干预目的是维持并复原人与人之间的平等和公正,人与自然世界之间的平衡和和谐,呼唤和需要是为了回应性别的不平等,环境的不公正及自然的统治。
    The Yijing presents a more extensive basis for reflecting on nature and the ecological crisis insofar as it encourages creatively restoring through both activity and responsiveness the balance between humans and themselves, other humans, and nature.
    易经代表一个更广泛的基础,在这程度上,反映了自然和生态危机,它鼓励通过活动和响应创造性地恢复人与自我、他人和自然之间的平衡。
    It does so through a reflective logic that indicates moments of appropriate increased activity as well as moments of deferential letting be. Such appropriate models of activity, informed by receptivity and responsiveness to the emerging incipient situation, are necessary in a situation in which ecological restoration is needed more than minimal activity and non-intervention in a massively degraded environment.
    透过反射逻辑它实现了这一平衡,逻辑表明合适的时间增加活动也增加了让它所成为的恭敬时刻。如此在活动中合适的例子是必要的,通过感受和响应到出现最初的情形,此中,需要生态的复原多于极少的活动和在大规模退化的环境中的非干预性。

II. A Pre- and Post-Patriarchal Book of Changes?
    The Yijing has itself changed almost as ceaselessly and radically as the change it describes.
    易经正如他所描绘的变化那样,本身已不断,根本地发生了改变。
    In this section, I will offer an overview of gender and gender-related issues in the long historical and interpretive development of the Yijing, and consider its possible pre- and post-patriarchal elements.。
    在这个部分中,在基于史实的对周易解释发展中,我们将会对阴阳及与阴阳有关的问题提出一个总体看法,并考虑到可能性的先后父权因素。
    The Zhouyi 《周易》, the Changes of Zhou, is one of the oldest documents from ancient China along with the Book of Documents and Book of Odes.
    《周易》即周的变化是一本古代中国最古老的文献之一,连同《文献书籍》和《颂歌》一起。
    The Zhouyi—the oldest strata of the Yijing—is a record of divinations (bu 卜) about war, travel, sacrifice, marriage, and death.
    最古老易经层面,周易记录了对战争,旅行,献祭,结婚和死亡的预言。
    It concerns the significant affairs of daily life, including the relations between women and men, the changing natural seasons, and the movements of the heavens above.
    他涉及到日常生活中重大事情:包括男女关系,自然中季节的改变及天体上方的运动。
    The earlier strata of the text make descriptive rather than prescriptive statements about women and their roles (Redmond et al., 2014, p. 89).
    较早期的社会阶层的版本对女人及其角色做出了描述性的而非规定性的陈述。
    An early form of divination involved burning animal bones and tortoise shells, interpreting the cracks as signs and indications from the spirits, and leaving brief records inscribed in the oracle bones.
    早期占卜的形式牵扯到焚烧动物骨头,乌龟甲壳,解释了裂缝是精神的相和标识。留下了简要记录刻写在甲骨文上。
    Informed by these archaic bronze-age [brɒnz] divination practices of the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the Yijing 《易經》, the Book of Changes—anachronistically associated with the legendary sage ruler Fu Xi (伏羲) and later cultural heroes such as the founder of the Zhou dynasty King Wen (文王)—gradually emerged.
    由这些古代的青铜器时期的,即商周朝时期的占卜习俗可知,易经时代错置,与传奇圣人统治者伏羲和后来周朝的奠基者,文化英雄文王有关。
    The divination practices of the Zhou should be understood in relation to those of the Shang dynasty.
    周朝的占卜习俗应被理解为与商朝的有关。
    There is evidence for the prominent role of women in divination during the Shang period.
    在商朝期间,有个对杰出女性占卜的方法。
    Remnants of divination practices record the significance of aristocratic woman in early Chinese social life.
    占卜习俗的其余部分记录了早期中国社会生活中贵族女人重大事件
    One intriguing example is the Shang dynasty consort and military leader Fu Hao (婦好) whose tomb was excavated at Yinxu (殷墟) near Anyang (安陽) in 1976年.
    一个有趣的例子是商朝配偶和军中领袖妇好,1976年她的墓在安阳附近的殷虚被挖掘。
    Fu Hao was a frequent object of divination (e.g., her health, dreams, and battles) and she herself is recorded as leading sacrifices and divinations (Haapanen, 2002, pp. 11-2).
    妇好是一个经常被别人用来占卜的目标(例如她的健康,梦想和战役)她本人也被记录为主要献祭和预测。
    The case of Fu Hao reveals the importance of women in the early practice and understanding of divination in China, an understanding that continues to resonate in later masculinized periods.
    妇好的例子揭示了中国早期习俗就女性的重要性问题在占卜方面的理解。
    The emergence of the Yijing included the introduction of the eight trigrams and sixty-four hexagrams that were said to be drawn from the patterns of heaven and earth and which are used to interpret the casting of the yarrow stalks.
    易经的出现包括对八卦的介绍和六十四卦,据说这些是从天地的模式中衍生出来的并被应用来解释撒草根占卜行为。
    According to tradition, it was King Wen who added the judgments and made the 64 hexagrams out of the 8 trigrams (Marshall, 2002, p. 10).
    根据传统,是文王加入了判断和从八卦中生出六十四卦。
    Each trigram is associated with gender, either feminine or masculine, and each hexagram has a gendered character based on the gender of the trigrams.
    每个卦都和阴阳,或者说男性或女性有关,并且根据卦的阴阳,每个卦都有一个性别人物。
    Hexagrams can be feminine-feminine, feminine-masculine, masculine-feminine, or masculine-masculine in their composition (Nielsen, 2003, p. 88; Wu, 2003, p. 127).
    卦在组合中,可能是阴-阴,阴-阳,阳-阴或阳-阳
    Gender, encompassing those socially and culturally mediated qualities associated with biological males and females, is formative for interpreting the logic of the Yijing throughout much of its history since the later Zhou dynasty.
    自周朝以来,通过诸多她的历史发现,阴阳,围绕着这些社会和文化的可调解及与生态男女相关的的特点,构成了解释易经的逻辑。
    The historical strata of the Yijing and its interpretations offer multiple changing models and images of the feminine and the masculine.
    易经中基于史实的社会阶层和对他的阐释提供了诸多改变男女形象的例子。
    The Yijing accordingly indicates a gendered way of thinking of nature, society, and the self that have been understood in hierarchical and non-hierarchical ways.
    因此,易经显示出一个用阴阳思考的方法,来思考自然,社会,和自我,这被理解为是用等级和非等级的方法思考。
    Despite the later association of the feminine with passivity and the lowly and the masculine with activity and nobility, the hexagrams themselves indicate a more complex and shifting understanding of gender relations beginning with the generative power of the earth (kun).
    尽管后来女性与被动,卑微相连,男性与主动高贵相连,卦本身也表明了一个更加复杂和换向对阴阳关系的理解,这开始于坤(地的生成力量)
    The lines concerning kun only refer to gender in the image of a mare (pinma 牝馬), which referred to a sacrificial animal and was only later reinterpreted as feminine and compliant.
    关于坤仅仅指的是阴,指祭祀的动物,后来指女性及一致的人事。
    Kun is not portrayed as weak, passive, or base as later commentators propose: its energy creates and completes the myriad things and sets into play the dynamic transformations of nature, society, and the self that are indicated in the Yijing.
    坤 不是对虚弱,被动,低级的描述 不是和后来的评论员们评论的一样:它的能量创造并使神秘事物完整,集中进行了,像易经中描述的那样,在自然,社会和自我中进行的动态转换。
    The later normative interpretive tradition highlights how it is the activity of qian that activates passive kun; another understanding stresses how qian only ascends like a dragon to the heavens from out of the infinite generative depths of kun to which it will return or from its dance with kun itself.
    后来标准的可解释的传统集中在 ,乾触发被动的坤的活动是怎样的,另一理解强调乾仅仅在提升时就像龙舞向天空,源于无限的坤的生成深度到到他的返回或与坤本身共舞。
    This is a dance of attraction between partners and a play of distance and approach without the hierarchical closure suggested in patriarchal interpretations.
    这是个伴侣间的迷人之舞,距离和方法间的游戏,没有停止等级的划分在父系中的解释暗含。
    Even the heavens, like all things, are born from and require earth for their generation and fulfillment. 
    甚至天,像所有事物一样出生之地,向地要他们的后代和满足感。
    The Zhouyi/Yijing is not the sole model of divination in ancient China: “According to the Zhouli 周禮 (Rites of Zhou) in ancient times there were three ancient sources that represented three methods of divining: (1) Lianshan 連山; (2) Guicang 歸藏; and (3) Zhouyi 周易” (Knechtges et al., 2014, p. 1877).
    周易或易经在古代中国不是唯一的占卜例子,根据古时的《周礼》有三个来源代表了三个占卜术:(1)连山(2)归藏(3)周易
    The first “connecting mountains” method was attributed to the archaic Xia (夏) dynasty and associated with Shennong (神農), one of the legendary three founding emperors of Chinese civilization.
    第一个“连山”的方法归因与古代夏朝并与神农相连,神农是三个建立中华文明帝业的传奇之一。
    He introduced agriculture and is associated with the earth. Lianshan begins with the doubling of the mountain trigram (gen 艮).
    他介绍了农业,并与地相关。连山开始于双山三线形艮
    The mountain arises from the earth toward the heights and has both sunny (yang) and shady (yin) sides.
    山朝着高度从地上升起,有阴阳两面。
    The primacy of generative kun itself is found in the divination text “Return to the Hidden” (Guicang 歸藏).
    第一位生成坤本身在占卜课文(归藏)中发现。
    The Guicang was ascribed to the Yellow Emperor (Huangdi 黃帝), attributed to the more feminine-oriented Shang dynasty, which followed the semi-legendary Xia. It was historically thought to be a later forgery until an earlier version was excavated in 1993.
    归藏起于皇帝,归于更多影响的商朝,延续其传奇的夏,从历史角度被认为是伪造,直到1993年更早期的版本被挖掘出来才有据可查。
    Its hexagram sequence begins with the doubling of the kun trigram, and the early text provides clearer evidence of the power of earth, water, and the feminine than the Yijing.
    卦像的顺序以坤卦双线开始,早期的课本提供了比易经更清晰的地权,水权,及阴性证明。
    In the Yijing, the third divinatory approach mentioned in the Zhouli, the constitutive role of the feminine cannot be denied.
    在易经中,第三个占卜方法周礼中,女性这个重要角色不容否认。
    The autopoietic generative interplay of nature is distorted if it is understood as the imposition of heaven upon earth or the masculine on the feminine.
    如果理解为天强于地或男性强于女性,这种自行繁衍并相互影响的自然系统将会扭曲。
    In the earlier strata of the Yijing, it is clear that various qualities such as qian and kun can be associated with either women or men.
    从早期易经的社会阶层中,不难看出各种特点,如乾和坤与男性和女性相关。
    It is in the Xi Ci 〈繫辭〉commentary that heaven is defined as male and earth as female (乾道成男,坤道成女), even as other passages in the same commentary articulate the generation of the myriad things (wanwu 萬物) from the generative interplay of heaven-earth (tiandi) and male-female (nannu) (天地絪縕,萬物化醇,男女構精,萬物化生) (Xi Ci I, 1.2 and Xi Ci II, 5.12).
    在系辞的注释中,乾天为男,坤地为女,甚至在其它篇章中同一注释明确详述了天地絪縕,萬物化醇,男女構精,萬物化生的道理。
    In commentaries such as Tuanzhuan《彖傳》1.2, the obedience of earth to heaven and vassals to their lord is emphasized.
    在彖传的注解中,地对天的服从就像诸侯对他们的主上一样。
    Hierarchy has in this context an ethico-political function unrelated to the sexual play of kun and qian that generates the difficult new beginning of the sprouting blade of grass pushing through the earth in hexagram three (zhun 屯) and the subsequent hexagrams.
    在此背景下,等级制度起到伦理政治的作用,与性别角色坤和乾无关,就像在屯卦中和后来的卦中所说,加以优待,封以诸侯(推动泥土,抽出新叶,生成新而难的开始)。
    Confucius himself purportedly added the commentaries that emphasize the moral-political lessons of the Yijing.
    据称,孔子曾亲自在易经中强调这种伦理道德关系。
    The Yijing remained until modernity a political guidebook, even as it continued to be a source for the practice of understanding the present through divination and also for understanding the natural world and human roles within it.
    易经作为一本政治性的指引手册流传至今,甚至作为通过占卜理解现在的惯例的来源,同时也是一本讲述人与自然的文化瑰宝。
    Yijing divination is about interpreting of the present situation and its direction of potential development, so that one can choose the right course of action to maximize the possibility of a beneficial result.
    在易经的占卜中,讲述了现在的状态和潜在的发展方向,以便于使一个人为其最大化的利益作出最正确的选择。
    The Yijing initially developed and continued to function as a work of divination.
    易经从其发展到现今,一直是作为一种预测占卜的手段。
    Because of its interpretive character, it became a primary source for understanding one’s various changing roles in the social and natural world.
    由于易经的解释性特征,使其成为理解人们在社会和自然中的各种角色变化的源泉。
    The Yijing’s shifting roles, patterns, and identities allows gender to be experienced and re-experienced in multiple ways without one underlying essential structure defining what it means to be male or female. The roles of child, daughter, sister, wife, mother, or elderly woman are relational roles that can be adopted and varied in multiple ways in responsiveness (ying 應) and resonance (gan 感) with shifting polarities, positions, and situations in the generative dance of life.
    易经的角色转化、方式、及身份使阴阳在处理无潜在基本结构时应用多种方法变得老练再老练,把他的意义定义为男女。儿女,姐妹,妻子,母亲这些角色随对立,地位,在生成中生命共舞中,在感应中,以多种方式适应和变化。
    Basic religious practices of ancient and traditional Chinese culture were sacrifice, geomancy, and divination, which call for interpreting the past, future, and particularly the present.
    古老而传统的中国宗教活动中,有牺牲、风水和占卜,可以推断过去,未来,特别是现在。
    These religious yet worldly practices inform the sensibility and examples used in classic texts such as the Analects attributed to Confucius and the Daodejing associated with the name Laozi. Practices can be understood as divination based either on their procedural or non-scientific characteristics (Guo, 2012, p. 419). Divination can involve spirits and the supernatural or be “naturalistic” without any appeal to the supernatural or to spirits.
    然而这些宗教世俗的惯例预示了古代课本中的感觉和例子。如孔子文选和道德经,道德经与老子的的日常活动有关,被理解为在程序上的或具有非科学特征的占卜预测。占卜包含了精神和超自然的或对超自然无任何帮助或对精神无任何帮助的自然。
    The Yijing is taken in a naturalistic way throughout its history.
    易经被应用在自然方面的例子遍及它的历史。
    In the Analects, one sees the Confucian tendency to reinterpret the religious or supernatural in terms of the ethics of the exemplary person (junzi 君子).
    在论语中孔子试着用君子解释何为宗教和超自然伦理准则。
    Heaven (tian 天) emerges as the morally sanctioned order of the world and moral action as genuine prayer and listening to heaven’s command.
    天是约束世界上的道德规则,而人应该诚恳尊天之意。
    One should sacrifice to the ancestors as if they are present, because of the importance of sincerity and cultivating a virtuous disposition through the rituals that renew (fu 復) daily life.
    在生活中,人们需要作出一些牺牲来祭祀先祖,以显示其真诚和贞洁。
    Religious rituals become primarily social-ethical, as the secular becomes the sacred (Fingarette, 1972).
    宗教信仰变成主要的社会道德,平凡造就非凡。
    A parallel development occurred with the interpretation of the Yijing.
    The emphasis turned from interpreting the traces left by ancestral spirits and indirectly the lord on high (Shangdi上帝) to an imaginative reflective encounter with one’s own situation in the context of one’s natural and social world.
    在易经中的另一个发展方向,重点从遵循先祖和上帝的旨意转到个人处境和社会自然的关系。
    In the Zuo Zhuan 左傳, which described events and persons of the 6th century B.C.E. through either proto-Confucian or anachronistic Confucian lenses, some regard divinations as literal but the wise interpret their results in relation to the ethical character and situation of the person such that “success and failure” lies “in the human realm” (Pines, 2002, pp. 86-7, 200-01).
    在左转中,描述了公元前6世纪的人事,透过儒学样机或时代错误的儒学透镜,一些学者将占卜视为文学文化而另一些学者认为占卜预测与伦理、人的处境有关,可视为人一生中的跌宕起伏。
    Although the historical reconstruction of the oldest strata of the Zhouyi calls for removing its philosophical and ethical dimensions, the role of the Yijing that is crucial to the development of later Chinese culture and thought stresses cosmology and ethics.
    虽然历史的重建在古老的周易社会阶层中,改变了周易在哲学上与道德上的地位,但周易仍对后来中国文化思想的发展有着巨大的影响。这一思想强调了宇宙和伦理。
    Wang Bi 王弼 (226-249 C. E.) explicated the naturalistic and ethical dimensions of the Yijing, and becomes crucial to this reading for the later tradition. Wang Bi only lived to be twenty-three years old and, during his brief life, edited and wrote commentaries on the Daodejing and Yijing.
    王弼曾为易经的自然和伦理方面做过精析的注解,为后来的传统研究做出了巨大的贡献。王弼仅仅活了23岁,在他的有生之年,为道德经和易经编辑攥写了注释。
    Wang Bi is known as a “Neo-Daoist” because of his teaching of the numinous or the “dark learning” (xuanxue玄學) that begins with the mystery of the emptiness of things and proceeds through their self-generative natural spontaneity.
    作为新派道学学者,王弼因其玄学而著名,开始于对事无能为力的神秘并延伸到自我生成自然的自发性。
    Wang Bi is influenced by Confucianism as can be seen in his eclectic commentary on the Yijing that emphasizes its role as a guide for interpreting the natural world and the moral cultivation of the self and the community.
    正如我们在易经中看到的折衷性注释中的评论那样,王弼受儒学影响很大。在他的评论中,他认为易经是对自然世界和道德文明社会的指引。
    In Wang Bi’s commentary on the Daodejing, the mysterious or dark female (xuanpin 玄牝), an expression found in Daoist texts associated with Laozi and Liezi 列子, is an image that points beyond words and is an indication of the ultimate.
    在王弼对道德经的注释中,他阐述了何为玄牝。在老子和列子章节之中,玄牝是一种只能意会不可言传的形象,是终极的象征。
    The philosophy of mysterious or dark learning highlights feminine qualities of flexibility, receptivity, and responsiveness as well as infinite depth and mystery.
    富有哲理的而又神秘的玄学将女性的可塑性、包容性和响应性视为天地万物的本源。
    Wang Bi associated the Yijing’s kun (the female, the earth, the receptive, the mare) with the primordial emptiness (wu 無) of Laozi and thus recognized the primordial and generative power of the feminine.
    王弼把易经中的坤与老子原始的无相结合,承认了原始生成的女性力量。
    Kyoo Lee argues that Wang Bi both recognizes and attempts to tame the feminine in his analysis of Laozi’s “dark female animal” (Lee, 2014, pp. 57-77).
    但也有学者Kyoo Lee对王弼在老子的玄学女性动物中赏识并企图驯服女性的研究中提出质疑。
    Wang Bi’s understanding of the feminine can be inadequate to its shifting and transformative character in the Yijing; yet his reading provides important clues for imaginatively and reflectively engaging gender and the feminine through the Yijing and feminist and post-patriarchal interpretations of the Yijing.
    王弼对女性的理解并不充分,因为易经的不稳定特点。然而他的读本为想象中并经过深入思考的透过易经从事阴阳和女性的研究提供了重要的线索。也提供了易经对女权主义和后父权的解释。
    While Confucius once stated to sacrifice to the spirits as if they were present, Wang Bi comments: “The yarrow stalks respond to questions as if they were echoes.” (Wang Bi, 1994, p. 120).
    然而孔子曾描述了精神层面的牺牲,正如它所呈现的那样。王弼评论道:“草芥回复,如同回声”。
    This Confucian-Daoist synthesis is not uncommon, as it is found throughout Chinese intellectual history; nor is it unusual to see Han Confucians and later Neo-Confucians take the emptiness and receptivity of the way (dao)—and accordingly the openness and generativity of the feminine—as the point of departure for their thinking of nature and the cosmos.
    儒道综合并不普遍,这一现象发展遍及中国知识分子的历史。看到汉儒更不寻常,后来的新派儒家把无为和包容(道的旨意),还有女性的率真和繁殖作为开始思考宇宙和自然的要点。
    The late Eastern Han dynasty Confucian philosopher Xu Gan 徐幹 (170-217 CE), recognized in his Zhonglun 《中論》 (Balanced Discourses) that the Yijing taught that it is by emptying the heart-mind (xin 心) that one becomes receptive and hence responsive to the incipient transformation of things, others, and one’s own heart-mind (Xu Gan, 2002, p. 51). Emptying the heart-mind signified a return to its openness and responsiveness as well as its naturalness and generative power.
    近代东汉王朝的儒学哲学家徐幹在他的《中論》中认为,易经教给我们,倒空心念,人就变得包容,因此可以应答事情初始的转化及他人和自己的心智。倒空心念指的是返回率真和回应,并返回自然和繁殖能力。
 
III. Conclusion 结论
    At the same time as ordinary popular Confucian culture officially maintained a masculine and hierarchical attitude, elements within Confucian philosophy point toward the importance of the feminine in experiencing and conceptualizing the world.
    与此同时,大众流行的儒家文化正规的坚持了男性和等级的态度,在坚持儒家哲学要点原理的基础上,表明了女性感受世界概括世界的重要性。
    These pre- and non-patriarchal elements indicate the possibility of, and they can be used to reconstruct, a post-patriarchal philosophy of the Book of Changes.
    这些先而非等级的要素表明了它的可能性,可以用来复兴后等级的易经哲学。
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